American Civil Sentinels

Our Oath Is Our Honor

We are a constitutional organization, we believe in the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness. We are the Guardians of Liberty

Events

Operations & Events, Basic Rules of the ACS

You can now find a copy of the Arizona constitution just under the flag main page.

ARIZONA FENCE: YOU CAN DONATE HERE:
www.BuildTheBorderFence.com

l

 

Southwest Truck driving training

520-620-6350  www.swtdt.com

 

Tucson Engineering, Technology and security clearance fair

www.expoexpertsllc.com

1-877-842-3976 x 17  or

resume@expertsllc.com

 

We now have a group for the ACS only to view the donations & expenses. This is for transparency purposes only.

 

 

Donations for the Sheriffs Project

PO BOX 27879,

Tucson, AZ 85726-7879

This goes to all the Sheriffs in AZ

 

FOR Terry Donation's

Information
Bank: Fifth Third Bank, www.53.com
Account Name: Brian Allen Terry
Number: 9513164278
Routing: 072405455
Phone Number: 1-800-972-3030
It takes 3 business days for transfers to clear through EFT.
Operations and Events and basic rules of the site:

While we try to be in the field as much as we can we can't always be out there with everyone. We have famlies and we're in the field year around so there is no way we can stay in the field more than a couple of days at a time. I personally don't get vacation time and have been in the field more than 90 days in the last year, but 3 to 4 days at a time and maybe only a couple of weekends a month.

 

When you folks plan your trips here take that into account, we can only be with you as much as finances and our families allow for, but we will do as much as we can while we're there. Remember we live in Arizona and this is semi full time OP for us!

 

Basic rules

*Racism will not be tolerated

*No Alcohol before any OP, the field be free of any alcohol. Possession of a firearm while you are intoxicated is a felony, and downright stupid.

*Making a statement that could be alleged as breaking the law.

*False accusations will not be tolerated or arguments on this site.

*If you want to accuse some one please present the proof or back off.

*We will not tolerate theft at all, sometime mistakes are made and that deserves another chance but outright theft does not!

* If you're here to cause division, you will be suspended; no ifs, ands or buts.

* If you think you were suspended unfairly you have a right to ask for reconsideration and it will be reviewed by three people.

*No foul language on the site, none.

*No threats to other people, law enforcement or the government. You may express you frustration with the government but don't make threats. You will be warned once and if you continue you will be suspended.

*Don't attack other groups or group sites, you will be suspended.

IN THE INTEREST OF TRANSPARENCY

For all those people who have donated, and I have your names that wish to see the records you can email us at arizonacivilsentinels@inbox.com

That way you will Know that any funds we have received went for Gas or equipment repair for the ACS and expenses. You might be surprised that there haven't been many funds.

Members

Notes

Informational Links

Created by Love of Liberty Oct 3, 2010 at 12:38pm. Last updated by Love of Liberty Oct 3, 2010.

Executive Orders

Created by Love of Liberty Oct 3, 2010 at 12:27pm. Last updated by Love of Liberty Oct 3, 2010.

Notes Home

Welcome! To view all notes, click here.

Created by Gray Hawk Oct 2, 2010 at 5:31pm. Last updated by Gray Hawk Oct 2, 2010.

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Liberty and Freedom Radio and Group NBC

All Federal gun laws are unconstitutional

Freedom Outpost’s Constitutional scholar Publius Huldah recently explained why Federal gun laws is unlawful. She noted that the first gun control measures put in place in the United States did not take place until 1927, when Congress banned the mailing of certain weapons. “We went from 1776 to 1927, 150 years after our founding, when Congress decided, “We better start disarming the American people.”

Huldah goes through the history of the Federal government’s unlawful actions to regulate firearms in America and she points out that when it started, the Progressives had already begun a takeover. I’ll also not the Federal Reserve had been established in 1913 as well.

In 1938 Congress legislated that gun dealers had to obtain a Federal Firearms Licenses and maintain names and addresses of those they sold their firearms to.

She was sarcastic when she asked if we would ask the current President and Congress for “crumbs,” begging them to let us keep “some of our firearms.”

She called the letter from the Utah Sheriffs Association “shameful” because it begged Obama not to impose restrictions on firearms by executive order, but rather let Congress determine those things.

However, Huldah said that “We must make a principled resistance. To do that, we must learn the applicable principle.” She then pointed her listeners to the Constitution to see whether or not the Federal government can impose such legislation.

Huldah then pointed out that there is a little known fact about the Constitution:

“It is one of enumerated powers only. When “We the people” ordained and established the Constitution, we created the Federal government. It is our creature. We are the creator. It is the creature. It is not our master.”

“The Constitution is so short,” she continued, because all of the powers enumerated to the Federal government are listed in it. “Depending on how you count, we delegated only 21 powers to the Federal government.” Article 1, Section 8, Clauses 1-16 are those powers.

Huldah then courageously pointed out that all laws made by Congress, any restrictions imposed by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, any restrictions made by executive order, and all Supreme Court decisions that restrict firearms are unconstitutional. They are unconstitutional because there is no authority to do so.

God is the giver of men’s rights, according to the Declaration of Independence, and the right to defend one’s self and one’s family is not only a right, but it is a duty and responsibility before God, according to the Bible which is a demonstration of our love for others. Therefore, she rightly pointed out that the Second Amendment is not the source of our right. It merely recognizes that the right is to be free from any interference whatsoever to defend ourselves, our families and our communities from attack. “This understanding is as old as human history,” she says.

The Framers of the Constitution understood that arms are the only defense against a Federal government that would seek to overstep its bounds. James Madison, writing in Federalist Paper No. 46, said that the reason the Citizens – the Militia – are armed is to defend ourselves, our families, our neighborhoods, communities, and States from an overreaching, tyrannical federal government.

Here are a couple of things indicate that the Framers of the Constitution understood this idea:

  1. Militia – armed citizens – Second Amendment
  2. Letters of Marque and reprisal – Article 1, Section 8, Clause 11 – This gives authority to Congress to authorize privately owned armed ships to make war on the enemies of the United States. An example of such was during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, where a ship was commissioned to make was on the Barbary pirates via a letter of Marque and reprisal from Congress. Also Congress did the same thing against the British.

In other words, the Framers had no problem with the citizens being as heavily armed as the country’s military. “That is because they did not see themselves as our rulers,” Huldah adds.

Article 1, Section 8, Clause 16 gives Congress the authority to demand that able bodied males be armed. It reads:

“To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.”

In 1792, Congress passed “An Act more effectually to provide for the National Defense by establishing an Uniform Militia throughout the United States.” This Act required all able-bodied male citizens (except for federal officers and employees) between the ages of 18 and under 45 to enroll in their State Militia, get a gun and ammunition, and train.

Publius Huldah then reminds us that the leading cause of death in the 20th Century was Democide – Death by Government. She ran the list of Soviet run Russia, Communist China, Nazi Germany, Cuba, Cambodia, and North Korea. She pointed out that Communist, Fascist and Islamic dictatorships murdered their own people by the tens of millions. “And do not think that isn’t coming this way,” she warned.

“Universal registration leads to confiscation. Confiscation leads to extermination. It always has. Why do you think they are so “Hell bent on disarming us?”

James Madison was clear in Federalist 46 that the citizenry being armed is to fight the Federal government’s tyranny.

“Let’s have no more talk of ‘reasonable restrictions’ and background checks imposed by the Federal government,” Huldah declared.

All Federal government gun and ammunition laws should be nullified, ignored and rendered toothless by the people of the States.

Publius Huldah then reference this essay, “The Coming Day of Burn Barrels and Blessings” in which James Wesley Rawles says:

If congress ever enacts a law mandating the registration and/or a production ban of detachable magazine semiautomatic rifles then you are hereby invited to the town square of your local community. There, burn barrels will be set up and we will publicly burn Form 4473s, FFL Bound Books, state and local registration records, and the sales receipts for every firearm in the United States. On that same day, FFL holders and public officials holding electronic firearms records will simultaneously erase those records, permanently and irretrievably.

Rawles indicates that the use of masks to hide identities would be proper and to cover dealers, they could claim that masked men with guns forced them to do what they did. Simply brilliant!

Huldah then addressed all State and County officers. She called upon them to support their oath, which is to support and defend the U.S. Constitution, according to Article 6, Clause 3. When as a representative of the people you acquiesce to Federal government gun laws of the you are not supporting or defending the Constitution, but rather you are conniving with tyrants against your own people.

“And if you connive with tyrants against your own people so that you can keep your Federal funding, then shame on you for becoming so corrupt that you allow yourself to be bribed with money that your grandchildren will have to pay back,” Huldah resounded.

She also called upon cowardly representatives who have become corrupt to resign their office and let manly men take their place.

While referencing Tennessee issues later in the speech, she did speak to Federal funding and declare that officials shouldn’t worry about “arming their posse” because manly men will arm themselves!

My fellow Americans, the line was drawn a long time ago and many in our country have allowed the Federal government to creep across that line slowly over the years. It is time to say “Enough is enough” and stop them and then push them back in place where they belong. Seriously, I almost feel like saying, “I’m Tim Brown and I approved this message.” However, we must resist the tyranny coming from Washington and the tyranny forming at our State and local levels that would seek to restrict our ability to own and carry firearms. Thank you Publius Huldah for your stand and may the manly men and the womanly women of this country take that same stand.

NEWS ALERT!!!
Thursday, February 21, 2013


Yesterday Citizens to Protect Fair Election Results conducted a press conference to announce their legal challenge to the baseless recall on Sheriff Arpaio.
You can see all the documentation and a video of the press conference at www.cpfer.com

After you review our website, please consider making a contribution to defray the legal costs. Also, forward to anyone you know who would help in this effort either financially or by spreading the word to their family and friends.
Thank you.

Citizens to Protect Fair Election Results

 

Just a little information for Vets.

VA Disability Compensation Increases

VA disability compensation along with VA pensions, retired pay and annuities have increased for 2013. Last month, the more than four million Veterans and survivors who receive compensation benefits from VA saw an increase of 1.7 percent in their total monthly payment. The increase is due to an annual cost of living adjustment (COLA) that ensures compensation benefits for Veterans and survivors keep pace with inflation.

For more on disability compensation, visit the Military.com Benefits Center.

If your looking for constitutional research scroll down the page, its all posted here.
Eligibility Activists: We have had our hopes dashed so many times, but the fight goes on. This could prove to be one of the more interesting ones and again, maybe the one that breaks the ice. Read Bob Unruh's new WND article below.

WND EXCLUSIVE

2nd bite to challenge Obama's eligibility?

Famous justice has had 'serious questions' about birth certificate

PS> Hopefully, you have also heard about Reverend Carl Gallups (aka PP Simmons) alert about a coming cable TV show on Eligibility, featuring an unnamed VIP ??????
"we've been at war for 11 years...what the United States military and the intelligence community know how to do is react to a fire fight in another country..."

"they're not there to provide long-term defensive capability...they are there to hold off the hostiles until the cavalry shows up...and the COVENANT is that the cavalry will show up...and it didn't"

"...so at that point....immediately, you have to try"

"Honestly...I don't know how anybody who's been in the military or in the intel community in operations overseas... how they can understand or process what the White House has been saying"

"Delta Force (irony alert - change you can believe in) ...these are trained Marines trained to do exactly what they were not allowed to do"

"Leon Panetta...carrying water for the administration...we didn't have enough information...we can't deploy troops into harm's way...that's what they're there for...that's what they've trained for...they expect to be dropped into harm's way without perfect information"
Godspeed,
Pixel Patriot

 

 

Barack Obama Is Ineligible to be President | by Atty Mario Apuzzo – Article II Constitutional Expert « CDR Kerchner (Ret)'s Blog
http://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2012/11/03/barack-obama-is-ineligible-to-be-president-by-atty-mario-apuzzo-article-ii-constitutional-expert/

 

SUPPORT SHERIFF JOE AND HIS CALL FOR CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION OF FRAUDULENT DOCUMENTS

A Greater Phoenix Tea Party Patriots Event

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD A PRINTABLE FLYER
View the Info at TerryLakinActionFund.com

CELEBRITY THEATRE // SAT, SEPT 22, 2012
Celebrity Theatre / 440 N 32nd Street / Phoenix AZ 85008 / http://goo.gl/maps/DNhcr

FEATURED GUESTS/SPEAKERS

Description: Speakers

Pat Boone
Will Speak and Sing

Former LTC Terry Lakin
Constitutional Eligibility Hero
Author of “An Officer's Oath

Joe Arpaio
America's Heroic Sheriff

ADDITIONAL SPEAKERS:

Mike Zullo:
Investigation Update

Bettina Viviano:
Hollywood Movie Producer of “We Will Not Be Silenced” - Dems/Clinton vs. Obama

Tom Ballantyne:
Author Oh Really, O'Reilly!: The Media Blackout And Bias

Doors Open 10:00 a.m.
Program 11:00 a.m. – 1:30 p.m.
Meet & Greet Session: 1:30 – 3 p.m.

TICKETS To Order Call Theatre @ 602-267-1600
Or use this link:
http://celebritytheatre.ticketforce.com/eventperformances.asp?evt=1350

General Admission: $10 Advance Purchase / $15 Day of Event
Meet & Greet / Reserved: $25 Advance Purchase / $30 Day of Event
Purchase By Phone or Internet: Add $5.00 Handling Fee Per Order

Drinks Available For Purchase / Photos with Featured Guests & Speakers

Please Forward This To Others and Place On Social Media Outlets.

 

 

 

See Official Announcement Issued By The Terry Lakin Action Fund This Morning:

 

“Former LTC Terry Lakin is scheduled to participate in a rally in support of Sherriff Joe Arpaio this fall in Phoenix. Terry Lakin chose to challenge Obama’s eligibility by inviting his own court martial. Terry was sent to prison for almost six months and discharged from the Army, stripped of rank, pay, and pension. Still, after four years and thousands of requests Obama and his representatives have yet to provide a single, legally valid, confirmation of Obama’s compliance with the Constitutional standard of Natural Born Citizen. Terry led the way with his bold action. His story is compelling, his cause, perhaps the most important in our nation’s history. Terry will be discussing his background on what led to the decision, the trial, his prison experiences, his growth in faith and appreciation for the found fathers, his new book, ‘Officer’s Oath’ and its importance, and responsibilities of our elected and appointed officials and military officers to confront this issue.”

 

The purpose of our meeting is to force Congress to open an investigation into this travesty of justice. As you know, Obama's first act as President was to affirm EXECUTIVE ORDER 13489 banning release of any of his records http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2304500/posts. Donald Trump has suggested the cost for such concealment has exceeded $3M to date.

BREAKING NEWS:

Our hope is to coordinate all tea party groups throughout each of all 50 states to participate in a national rally in each state capital city simultaneously in support of Sheriff Joe's criminal investigative findings suggesting fraudulent activity in Obama's BC, SSN, and SS certificate. Such disregard for the rule of law has created a viable national security threat to the country. As such, 535 elected officials in Congress have yet to honor their sworn oaths of office to uphold the US Constitution or to protect their constituents, including those US Congress and Senate elected officials here in AZ.

 

FreedomWorks would also be welcome to attend, help fund and/or coordinate this event . Any access to contact info on such tea party groups for all such 50 states would be greatly appreciated. contact: 520-360-0306

 

 

 

"A strong body makes the mind strong. As to the species of exercises, I advise the gun. While this gives moderate exercise to the body, it gives boldness, enterprise and independence to the mind. Games played with the ball, and others of that nature, are too violent for the body and stamp no character on the mind. Let your gun therefore be your constant companion of your walks." --Thomas Jefferson, letter to Peter Carr, 1785



 
 
BREAKING NEWS:

OBAMA’S KENYAN BIRTH RECORDS DISCOVERED IN BRITISH NATIONAL ARCHIVES « CDR Kerchner (Ret)'s Blog

http://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2012/07/19/obamas-kenyan-birth-records-discovered-in-british-national-archives/
You don't have to donate and I'm not asking anyone to do that, if you can pass this information along to everyone you can.... and I know those who can help Sheriff Joe will ! We are in a constitutional crisis and our politicians are derelict in their duty to protect and defend our constitution.


COLD CASE POSSE DISCOVERS IMMIGRATION
'NATIONAL SECURITY THREAT'


Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio confirmed today that the document released by the White House as Barack Obama's birth certificate in April 2011 is a FORGERY.

The investigation also revealed that Hawaii is a known birth certificate factory allowing non-citizens to claim children, or even themselves, as born in Hawaii WITH NO PROOF.

Today, we learned that the Cold Case Posse discovered vital statistics markings on the birth certificate reveal that the White House document had been undoubtedly altered.

HELP MMPAC SUPPORT FOR SHERIFF JOE AND THE COLD CASE POSSE -- AMERICA DESERVES TO KNOW THE TRUTH - SELECT HERE TO HELP DEMAND A CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATION TO RESOLVE THIS NATIONAL SECURITY CRISIS!

The coding (confirmed by Verna K.L. Lee who signed the Obama document in 1961), also reveals the likelihood that Barack Obama's birth certificate was not received by the Hawaiian Department of Health from the medical center where he (and the birth certificate) claims he was born.

It suggests that somebody at a later date and time than when the original application was submitted filled in the blanks, and we can only wonder why...

Investigators also discovered key information missing (including the appropriate initials) on the verification document Hawaii provided to Arizona's secretary of state Ken Bennett in May of this year.

While Bennett accepted the Department of Health's baseless claim that Obama was born in the Aloha State and put him on the ballot, Sheriff Joe and the Cold Case Posse still have their doubts about his eligibility... and for good reason!


Even Hawaii's Deputy Attorney General, Jull T. Nagamine, refused to confirm that the White House document matched what was on file with the Hawaii Department of Health when Cold Case Posse detectives confronted her. Unsurprisingly, the Attorney General was "unavailable."

Hawaii Revised Statute 338.17.8. states:

338-17.8 Certificates for children born out of state.

Upon application of an adult or the legal parents of a minor child, the director of health shall issue a birth certificate for such adult or minor, provided that proof has been submitted to the director of health that the legal parents of such individual while living without the Territory or State of Hawaii had declared the Territory or State of Hawaii as their legal residence for at least one year immediately preceding the birth or adoption of such child.


Why would Hawaii do such a thing? Because a higher population means more federal funding and more government employees...

This is insane, this is ILLEGAL and Hawaii is getting away with it at the expense of our national security, just as Obama is getting away with presenting a manipulated document as proof of his constitutional eligibility to be president!


No one -- NOT CONGRESS NOR ANYONE ELSE -- has taken any action to hold Hawaii accountable for blatantly violating federal immigration law, let alone the recent Supreme Court ruling on Arizona's anti-illegal immigration law!

According to Zullo, from 1955 to 1982 any adult that could prove residency could declare a birth for a child or even themselves in Hawaii AND, despite the evidence of a significant number of foreign citizens (namely from Japan) coming in to get Hawaiian issued birth certificates and sneak around the U.S. immigration and naturalization process.

Military kids born abroad do not even receive a state-issued birth certificate. Instead, they get something different from the Secretary of State saying "foreign born U.S. Citizen."

Hawaii's own law says its birth certificate is only "first sight" evidence of citizenship, requires further evidence, yet the American people are expected to take Obama's fraud-riddled PDF as EVIDENCE of his constitutional eligibility to be President of the United States.


Sheriff Joe and the Cold Case Posse have been stonewalled at every turn and subject to the intimidation tactics of this sleazy Chicago-thug administration while our national security has been compromised by greedy, power-hungry politicians.

America deserves to know the truth.

Do NOT let Hawaii get away allowing individuals to bypass the immigration and naturalization process.

Do NOT let Obama brush off Sheriff Joe or the Cold Case Posse.

DEMAND a Congressional Investigation to resolve this constitutional crisis today!

For America,

Minuteman PAC

P.S. Sheriff Joe is up for re-election this fall, and already Obama's Leftwing smear machines are working overtime to destroy "America's Toughest Sheriff" to stop this investigation and to stop Sheriff Joe from enforcing immigration law in the busiest human- and drug-smuggling corridor along the U.S.-Mexico border. Please, right now, help Sheriff Joe fight Obama's propaganda war -- SELECT HERE to make your best contribution today!



Peers Briefing

http://www.scribd.com/doc/97659733/Peers-Briefing

Is the President the President? A Hereditary Peers’ Briefing Paper | LONDON, JUNE 2012
Therefore the issue, peripheral though it may at first seem, is not only of central importance to the United States, whose Constitution may have been flouted and circumvented in a material respect, but is also potentially of great consequence to Britain and to the West.

Monckton of Brenchley

 

 

AZ Sheriff Joe Arpaio Sends Detectives to Honolulu Hawaii to Investigate Obama Birth Records Authenticity
http://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2012/05/21/az-sheriff-joe-arpaio-sends-detectives-to-honolulu-hawaii/

 

86241834-Tisdale-v-Obama-4th-Cir-Appeal-2012-03-20-Apuzzo-Amicus-Brief.pdf

 
88210044-Purpura-Moran-Objection-to-Obama-Nominating-Petition-Filed-in-NJ-on-5-Apr-2012.pdf

 

PLEASE HELP SAVE OUR COUNTRY. This link below is for ANYONE who cannot sign a paper copy of the Petition to the Arizona Legislature tomorrow at the Church on the Green in Sun City West. When you click on the link, you will be able to read the petition's wording. It asks either or both houses (under Ariz. Rev. Statutes 41-121) to
instruct Secretary of State Ken Bennett to via a RESOLUTION of the State Senate and/or House to send a letter to DNC Chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz. The purpose of the letter is to pose very serious questions and demand substantive answers in regard to Barack Obama's eligibility, including the subjects of natural born citizenship, the birth certificate, the selective service registration card, and social security number. Should the RESOLUTION be passed by the legislature and the letter be issued and not responded to or responded to with unsatisfactory answers, then Ken Bennett would be very hard pressed to place Barack Obama's name on the Arizona ballot.

http://goo.gl/dhDBI ***THIS PETITION IS FOR
ARIZONA RESIDENTS ONLY ***

PLEASE IMMEDIATELY RESEND THIS LINK ON TO AS MANY AS POSSIBLE THAT YOU FEEL WOULD BE INCLINED TO SIGN IT.

 

An Appeal to the Arizona Supreme Court on March the 9th
notice%20of%20appeal.pdf

 

Well they dismissed my case on the 7th  with prejudice and I had to hear about on the net

 

 

 

Arizona case file today 2-17-2012:
Arizona%20case%20BC%20C20121046.pdf

 

Homepage:
www.libertyandfreedomradio.net

Chatroom:
www.libertyandfreedomradio.net/chat.asp

 

Arizona Constitution, Article 2, Section 26 The right of the individual citizen to bear arms in defense of himself or the State shall not be impaired, but nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing individuals or corporations to organize, maintain, or employ an armed body of men.

Arizona_Constitution.pdf


The archived video of the complete January 26, 2012 Georgia State Administrative Hearing on Barack Obama's ballot access is now posted at the Article II Super PAC website, http://www.art2superpac.com

We've also posted it at the Georgia Live Stream page, http://www.art2superpac.com/livevideo.html


The Dirty “little” Secret Of The Natural Born Citizen Clause Revealed
Attorney Leo Donofrio


I have emphasized the word “little” because the truth of the law on this issue is very simple, folks. So simple that the mystery is deciphered by application of one of the most clear, concise and undeniable rules of law; the code of statutory construction governs, and therefore, “natural born Citizen” must require something more than being born in the United States.

Let me put it to you in appropriately simple language:

Clause A = “Only a natural born Citizen may be President.”

Clause B = “Anyone born in the United States is a Citizen.”

(While these two clauses reflect Article 2, Section 1, and the 14th Amendment, I shall refer to them as “Clause A” and “Clause B” for now.)

The code of statutory construction is learned by every student in law school, and every practicing attorney has confronted it. Every judge is required to apply the rule equally to all statutes, and the Constitution. There is no wiggle room at all. The rule states that when a court examines two clauses, unless Congress has made it clear that one clause repeals the other, the court must observe a separate legal effect for each. More specifically, regardless of the chronology of enactment, the general clause can never govern the specific.

Clause B is a general rule of citizenship, which states that all persons born in the country are members of the nation.

Clause A is a specific clause that says only those members of the nation who are “natural born” may be President.

According to the rule of statutory construction, the court must determine that Clause A requires something more than Clause B.

It’s truly that simple. This is not some crazy conspiracy theory. It’s not controversial. This is not rocket science. Every single attorney reading this right now knows, beyond any shadow of a doubt, that I have accurately explained the rule of statutory construction to you. Any attorney who denies this rule, is lying. The rule cannot be denied. And its simplicity cannot be ignored.

Now let’s see what the United States Supreme Court has to say about the rule:

Where there is no clear intention otherwise, a specific statute will not be controlled or nullified by a general one, regardless of the priority of enactment. See, e. g., Bulova Watch Co. v. United States, 365 U.S. 753, 758 (1961); Rodgers v. United States, 185 U.S. 83, 87 -89 (1902).

The courts are not at liberty to pick and choose among congressional enactments, and when two statutes are capable of co-existence, it is the duty of the courts, absent a clearly expressed congressional intention to the contrary, to regard each as effective. “When there are two acts upon the same subject, the rule is to give effect to both if possible . . . The intention of the legislature to repeal `must be clear and manifest.’ ” United States v. Borden Co., 308 U.S. 188, 198 (1939).” Morton v. Mancari, 417 U.S. 535, 550-551 (1974).


This is what I mean by no wiggle room – “The courts are not at liberty to pick and choose among congressional enactments…” Any court construing Clause A is not at liberty to assume that Congress intended to put the words “natural born” into Clause B. The general does not govern the specific, and the rule requires the court to “give effect to both if possible”.

Is it possible to give separate effect to both Clause A and Clause B?

CONTINUED HERE: http://naturalborncitizen.wordpress.com/2012/01/27/the-dirty-little-secret-of-the-natural-born-citizen-clause-revealed

ARTICLE II ELIGIBILITY FACTS HERE: http://www.art2superpac.com/issues.html



MINOR v. HAPPERSETT REVISITED.

…the only time the US Supreme Court ever did define the class of persons who were POTUS eligible under Article 2 Section 1 was in Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1874), wherein it was held:

“The Constitution does not, in words, say who shall be natural-born citizens. Resort must be had elsewhere to ascertain that. At common-law, with the nomenclature of which the framers of the Constitution were familiar, it was never doubted that all children born in a country of parents who were its citizens became themselves, upon their birth, citizens also. These were natives, or natural-born citizens, as distinguished from aliens or foreigners.” Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162, 168.

There’s a quote for you. It really exists. And it tells you exactly who are natural-born citizens; those born in the country of parents who are citizens. The words are plain-spoken and self-evident. There are two classes of persons discussed in the above quotation. Those born in the country of citizen parents were labeled by the Court as “natives or natural-born citizens”, but these were also further identified as being “distinguished from aliens or foreigners”. The distinction is crucial.

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We have a hard fight ahead but no matter what anyone says we "are" still a Strong Nation, its we the people folks not the government that makes America great ....GOD...family and country!

We need to challenge Obama in every state, if you want to help email Cpt.Barnett , we have been working for more than 3 years now to get the truth out and challenge Obama wherever we can. This is about saving our Republic folks. 

Kenneth Allen

Founder of ObamaBallotChallenge.com Speaks with The Post & Email

“WE’RE GOING TO CHALLENGE THEM IN EVERY STATE”
by Sharon Rondeau

(Dec. 13, 2011) — Capt. Pamela Barnett (Ret.) has founded a website and initiative which seeks to assist citizens wishing to challenge Obama’s constitutional eligibility and name placement on the presidential ballot for 2012. She and her team are currently compiling election law from all 50 states and will be providing forms and sample letters which registered voters can use to file a complaint.

Barnett has recently appeared on The Roth Radio Show and the Andrea Shea King Radio Show to detail her plan to challenge Obama’s eligibility based on the claim that he is not a “natural born Citizen” as required by Article II, Section 1, clause 5 of the U.S. Constitution. Barnett also operates the website “Unlawful President” and will be releasing a book entitled Never Vetted, the first chapter of which was published on the internet at no charge for informational and educational purposes.

In May of last year, Barnett filed a lawsuit against California Secretary of State Debra Bowen challenging the eligibility of Damon Dunn, a Republican candidate running for Bowen’s position. Barnett explained that she had researched California election law in regard to challenging candidate qualifications. “I found out that there was law for challenging the ballot, and part of the Barnett v. Dunn case goes to the criminal negligence of the California Secretary of State and the Attorney General,” she said.

The Post & Email asked Barnett who initiated the idea of a ballot challenge campaign, and she responded, “I did. The Dunn case has been with me since 2010, and I kept it in the back of my mind that if nothing else works, we should challenge the ballot in regard to Obama. In trying to come up with a solution, I thought about it hard. After seeing the total failure of our government, I decided to find all the election laws, make a website, lead a national movement, and overwhelm the Democrats in all 50 states.”

The Obama Ballot Challenge website has been operational for about three weeks. Barnett is director, and Gary Wilmott and George Miller are filling key positions. Barnett is seeking people who can market the website by placing links on other sites about Obama Ballot Challenge. “The goal is to get as many complaints in as many states as possible to inform more people about the fraud crimes going on. We also want more people to know the meaning of “natural born Citizen.”

We asked Barnett how long it took her to research election law in every state, and she replied, “It’s still ongoing. I still need research help. Most states have their election law on the internet, and we’ve done 26 states to date. Looking through election law is not an exciting thing to do, and I’ve already had a few people say they just can’t do it (laughs). It’s not hard; you just have to find the law and start looking for key words such as “contest” and “challenge.” Most secretaries of state that we found have only a ministerial duty, but some of them have more than that but did not follow their states’ laws after receiving complaints. The difference now is that a lot of the deadlines were missed, so many of the complaints that were filed became civil fraud cases. There, you have to prove that you have standing, and some of them sued the secretaries of state, who then wiggled out of it, saying they didn’t have a ministerial duty to check on eligibility. With ballot challenges, you have instant standing.”

The Post & Email asked, “Is it true that all states have a specific ballot challenge period and that the challenge can be made by an average person?” and Barnett responded, “Yes. You have to be a registered voter. Two states which are standing out as undemocratic are Wisconsin and Virginia. Wisconsin says that it’s the Congress’s job to vet candidates, and if you have any questions you should call the FEC. They’re usurping power from the law. That’s the state where we’ll probably need an attorney. In other states it must simply be a registered voter. You can file the challenge, it’s free, and often you can submit it electronically via email or fax.”

Barnett found that some states allow a ballot challenge up to 30 days after an election if new information comes to light about a candidate’s eligibility, even allowing for voiding of an election. “The Obama State Ballot Challenge 2012 is there to assist people in finding the law and steering them in the right direction. We’re probably going to come up with a generic ballot complaint which addresses the “natural born Citizen” issue, which would be appealable up to the Supreme Court.”

Barnett stated that while she was developing the Obama Ballot Challenge project, the Article II SuperPac started up. The Post & Email asked her, “What is the relationship between the two new groups? Is there a nexus?” and she responded, “We are strategic partners, and we’re putting out a press release on that.”

The Post & Email has interviewed the director of the Article II SuperPac organization and will be publishing a report within the next few days.

Of the purpose of each organization, Barnett explained, “We’re more of the action arm; they’re a long-term educational initiative which will be creating a defense fund for people who are challenging the ballot in their states who need an attorney. Whatever comes up as an immediate concern will hopefully be able to be covered with the funds raised. We’re also looking at challenging Republican candidates such as Marco Rubio and Bobby Jindal if they are placed on the ballot because they are not natural born Citizens.”

Barnett explained that Obama is not the first occupant of the White House to have his eligibility challenged. Of Chester Arthur, who served as president following the death of President James Garfield after having been shot by an assassin, Barnett said, “He wasn’t even an American citizen, because at the time of his birth, the 14th Amendment had not been passed, and his father was not a U.S. citizen.” The White House biography does not mention anything about Arthur’s personal background except that he was “born in Vermont.” She stated that Arthur’s father did not naturalize until his son was 14 years old, which made the son a U.S. citizen but not a “natural born Citizen.”

We asked Barnett if she knew how many complaints are in the process of being filed, and she responded, “There are people from at least ten states working on ballot challenges now. We’re there to make sure they have prepared a proper complaint according to the law in their states.”

Barnett believes that people “cannot just stand on the sidelines” when it comes to the 2012 election. “If we can keep Obama off the ballot in one state, hopefully others can follow. I was originally planning on waiting until the general election, but we know how long it can take going through the court process. A lot of these challenges will not be resolved at the administrative level and lawsuits will be filed which can go all the way to the Supreme Court. Standing will not be an issue, an injury will exist, and the court will have jurisdiction. We’re overcoming all of the obstacles that were there before.”

Summarizing the scope and purpose of ObamaBallotChallenge.com, Barnett said:

We cannot wait for Congress, the federal judiciary, or the Department of Justice to enforce the law regarding Obama’s eligibility. They have failed us. The Obama State Ballot Challenge puts the power back into the hands of the people. It gives any voter a course of action to take to ensure that the Constitutionally ineligible Obama is not re-elected.
Filing a ballot complaint to keep Obama off the ballot in their state is free, easy, and doesn’t require an attorney. This process gives instant “standing” to the complainant to have their ballot complaint heard on the merits. The complaint absolutely needs to be filed within the legal time frame for their state. The Obama State Ballot Challenge staff will offer assistance with complaints to those who request it.If in the future the administrative complaint is rejected, we hope that our strategic partner, the ART2 SuperPAC, will have a legal fund to assist those who need it.It is the goal of Obama State Ballot Challenge to inspire citizens to file complaints in every state so that the American citizens might finally receive justice against the Un-Constitutional, usurper Barack Obama… and to ensure that he will not be re-elected by finally having the mandate of the Supreme Court in Minor v. Happersett enforced within the several states.

Barnett also said that hearings concerning ballot challenges normally take place within 30 days after the complaint is filed.

Robert Hefner

Art IV Section 4

ART IV sec 4
Section 4: The United States shall Guarantee to every state in this union a Republican form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the executive (when legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

Our constitution tells us that our government must protect us from invasion and folks that's what we see in our country today, In Arizona there has been an act of treason on the governments part by refusing to protect Arizona and taking the side of a foreign nation. Mexico is as much a friend to us as Hitler was to the Jews.

Gray Hawk

Remember what the Declaration of Independence says; this was a warning by our forefathers not me!

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislature.

He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states:

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing taxes on us without our consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury:

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses:

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule in these colonies:

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments:

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy of the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare, is undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as free and independent states, they have full power to levey war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.

You could replace the statement British crown with our current administration and we would write the same Declaration. Our founding father wrote this for US, they wrote this for this very "DAY".


United States Constitution


The Constitution is presented in several ways on this site. This page presents the Constitution on one large HTML-enhanced page. Other pages present the Constitution as a series of individual pages, in plain text, in standard Palm DOC format, and in enhanced TealDoc format. A quick reference is also available, as are photos of the Constitution. The Constitution of China is available for comparison.

I


Contents


The Constitution of the United States

Preamble Note

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


Article I - The Legislative Branch Note

Section 1 - The Legislature

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2 - The House

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

(Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.) (The previous sentence in parentheses was modified by the 14th Amendment, section 2.) The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3 - The Senate

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, (chosen by the Legislature thereof,) (The preceding words in parentheses superseded by 17th Amendment, section 1.) for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; (and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 17th Amendment, section 2.)

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4 - Elections, Meetings

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of Chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall (be on the first Monday in December,) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 20th Amendment, section 2.) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5 - Membership, Rules, Journals, Adjournment

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6 - Compensation

(The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.) (The preceding words in parentheses were modified by the 27th Amendment.) They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7 - Revenue Bills, Legislative Process, Presidential Veto

All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8 - Powers of Congress

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9 - Limits on Congress

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

(No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.) (Section in parentheses clarified by the 16th Amendment.)

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.

Section 10 - Powers prohibited of States

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.


Article II - The Executive Branch Note

Section 1 - The President Note1 Note2

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

(The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.) (This clause in parentheses was superseded by the 12th Amendment.)

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

(In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.) (This clause in parentheses has been modified by the 20th and 25th Amendments.)

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Section 2 - Civilian Power over Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3 - State of the Union, Convening Congress

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4 - Disqualification

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.


Article III - The Judicial Branch Note

Section 1 - Judicial powers

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2 - Trial by Jury, Original Jurisdiction, Jury Trials

(The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.) (This section in parentheses is modified by the 11th Amendment.)

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3 - Treason Note

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.


Article IV - The States

Section 1 - Each State to Honor all others

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2 - State citizens, Extradition

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

(No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.) (This clause in parentheses is superseded by the 13th Amendment.)

Section 3 - New States

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4 - Republican government

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.


Article V - Amendment Note1 - Note2 - Note3

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.


Article VI - Debts, Supremacy, Oaths

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.


Article VII - Ratification Documents

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.


Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names. Note

Go Washington - President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire - John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts - Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut - Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York - Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey - Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton

Pensylvania - B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delaware - Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom

Maryland - James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia - John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina - Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

South Carolina - J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia - William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary


The Amendments Note

The following are the Amendments to the Constitution. The first ten Amendments collectively are commonly known as the Bill of Rights. History


Amendment 1 - Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.


Amendment 2 - Right to Bear Arms. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.


Amendment 3 - Quartering of Soldiers. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.


Amendment 4 - Search and Seizure. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


Amendment 5 - Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. Ratified 12/15/1791.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.


Amendment 6 - Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.


Amendment 7 - Trial by Jury in Civil Cases. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.


Amendment 8 - Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Ratified 12/15/1791.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


Amendment 9 - Construction of Constitution. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.


Amendment 10 - Powers of the States and People. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.


Amendment 11 - Judicial Limits. Ratified 2/7/1795. Note History

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.


Amendment 12 - Choosing the President, Vice-President. Ratified 6/15/1804. Note History The Electoral College

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.


Amendment 13 - Slavery Abolished. Ratified 12/6/1865. History

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. Ratified 7/9/1868. Note History

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


Amendment 15 - Race No Bar to Vote. Ratified 2/3/1870. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment 16 - Status of Income Tax Clarified. Ratified 2/3/1913. Note History

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.


Amendment 17 - Senators Elected by Popular Vote. Ratified 4/8/1913. History

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


Amendment 18 - Liquor Abolished. Ratified 1/16/1919. Repealed by Amendment 21, 12/5/1933. History

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


Amendment 19 - Women's Suffrage. Ratified 8/18/1920. History

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment 20 - Presidential, Congressional Terms. Ratified 1/23/1933. History

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.


Amendment 21 - Amendment 18 Repealed. Ratified 12/5/1933. History

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


Amendment 22 - Presidential Term Limits. Ratified 2/27/1951. History

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.


Amendment 23 - Presidential Vote for District of Columbia. Ratified 3/29/1961. History

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment 24 - Poll Tax Barred. Ratified 1/23/1964. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment 25 - Presidential Disability and Succession. Ratified 2/10/1967. Note History

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.


Amendment 26 - Voting Age Set to 18 Years. Ratified 7/1/1971. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment 27 - Limiting Changes to Congressional Pay. Ratified 5/7/1992. History

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.


General Information

13-3884. Arrest by private person

A private person may make an arrest:

1. When the person to be arrested has in his presence committed a misdemeanor amounting to a breach of the peace, or a felony.

2. When a felony has been in fact committed and he has reasonable ground to believe that the person to be arrested has committed it.


The 18 to 45 age clause is a guide line, it also say's capable citizens of the state, I had an inquiry on this matter so I just wanted to clear this up.

Composition of militia according to the AZ constitution! Article 16 sec.1

Section 1. The militia of the state of Arizona shall consist of all capable citizens of the state between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, and of those between said ages who shall have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, residing therein, subject to such exemptions as now exist, or as may hereafter be created, by the laws of the United States or of this state.

And those US laws are the 9th and 10th Amendments .

ACS Oath

I solemnly swear,promise and affirm to protect support and defend the United States of America and the Constitution against foreign and domestic Enemy's , I also pledge my life and honor, so help me, GOD.


The absolute rights of individuals may be resolved into the right of personal security, the right of personal liberty, and the right to acquire and enjoy property. These rights are declared to be natural, inherent, and unalienable. Atchison & N. R. Co. v. Baty, 6 Neb. 37, 40, 29 Am. Rep. 356.

By the "absolute rights" of individuals is meant those which are so in their primary and strictest sense, such as would belong to their persons merely in a state of nature, and which every man is entitled to enjoy, whether out of society or in it. The rights of personal security, of personal liberty, and private property do not depend upon the Constitution for their existence. They existed before the Constitution was made, or the government was organized. These are what are termed the "absolute rights" of individuals, which belong to them independently of all government, and which all governments which derive their power from the consent of the governed were instituted to protect. People v. Berberrich (N. Y.) 20 Barb. 224, 229; McCartee v. Orphan Asylum Soc. (N. Y.) 9 Cow. 437, 511, 513, 18 Am. Dec. 516; People v. Toynbee (N. Y.) 2 Parker, Cr. R. 329, 369, 370 (quoting 1 Bl. Comm. 123).

Chancellor Kent (2 Kent, Comm. 1) defines the "absolute rights" of individuals as the right of personal security, the right of personal liberty, and the right to acquire and enjoy property. These rights have been justly considered and frequently declared by the people of this country to be natural, inherent, and inalienable, and it may be stated as a legal axiom [A principle that is not disputed; a maxim] that since the great laboring masses of our country have little or no property but their labor, and the free right to employ it to their own best interests and advantage, it must be considered that the constitutional inhibition against all invasion of property without due process of law was as fully intended to embrace and protect that property as any of the accumulations it may have gained. In re Jacobs (N. Y.) 33 Hun, 374, 378.

RULES OF ENGAGEMENT

1. Our ROE's are intended to make sure that our members operations are consistent with policy objectives.

2.ACS leaders can review the ROE to determine if they are too violent, too risky.

3. ROE are intended to provide a set of guidelines for the commander's of the ACS and the members, under die presumption that the ACS's role is to carry out our operation and not make policy decisions meant to be made by the locals under state authority.

4. Every situation can be different so use your head, think before you act.

5. We have a right under the Arizona constitution to protect ourselves and those around us.

6. We don't have a right to put our hands on unarmed IA unless we actually see them commit a crime, but we do have a right to protect ourselves from armed cartel and IA members.

7. We continue to try and contact the local authorities first upon contact but there might be a chance that you can't and should that happen use your head, don't be the cartels casualty.

Responsibilities and safety

8. When at the camp, and because it’s a safe camp you won't have a weapon chambered and make sure its on safe. Please keep your weapons out of any children in the area's reach. Also remember that the cartel walk right by the RV park at 151.
We will also have some security because the cartel does frequent that area.

9. Folks everything will go smoothly if we just follow some rules and don't break the law, if you do break the law or refuse to listen to the folks on any Op  you may be asked to leave.

NO HOT HEADS ALLOWED!

 
 
 

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Operations Training Group

We had a pretty good discussion about ghillie suits at training this past weekend.

If anyone wants a ghillie suit I can make a great one for you (the way the Marines taught me) and all you have to do is provide me the set of fatigues you want it on and the let me know the environment you want it used in.

I won't charge any members of our organization, but let's just pay it forward.

 

Semper Fi!

PapaBear

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